Paris Agreement Article 7

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This article goes beyond mitigation obligations and examines how the adaptation, loss and damage provisions of the Paris Agreement are based on differentiation, in order to enable combined top-down and bottom-up approaches to the overall cooperation objectives of Article 2, set by the UNFCCC and the COP. It describes the fundamental aspects of the Paris Agreement and COP21`s follow-up decision on the treatment of adaptation, loss and damage, which allows the parties to work towards a qualitative goal based on the unique vulnerabilities and capabilities of the parties to respond to the effects of climate change. The paragraphs of the COP21 decision consolidate WIM`s governance role by inviting it to implement specific governance measures. [66] The Executive Committee should define comprehensive risk management strategies; Create a task force on eviction issues related to the adverse effects of climate change; and the establishment of annual reports. [67] The inclusion of the language related to displacement has been a pillar of claims for loss and damage in developing countries. [68] However, the issue of forced displacement and migration would have been ideally integrated for developing countries in the broad areas of ACTION of the WIM listed in Article 8.4 of the agreement. [11] Lima Call for Climate Action puts the world on the right track after Paris 2015, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (14 December 2014), newsroom.unfccc.int/lima/lima-call-for-climate-action-puts-world-on-track-to-paris-2015/; At COP17, the parties established the ad hoc working group on a Durban platform to strengthen action and tasked by 2015 to develop “a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed-upon outcome with the force of law within the framework of the agreement applicable to all contracting parties.” United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, report of the Conference of the Parties to its seventeenth session, held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011. FCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1, 2, Decision 1/CP.17 (March 15, 2012). [24] Vito De Lucia, The Encyclopedia of the Earth, Common But Differentiated Responsibility (July 27, 2007, 11:01), www.eoearth.org/view/article/151320/. Parity culminated in two ways at COP20: 1) with negotiations on the elements necessary to include the parties in their planned national contributions (“INDC”) to be presented before COP21; and 2) at the heart of the new agreement. [11] It is likely that developed countries have argued that NDCs should focus exclusively on reduction. Developing countries disagreed and supported the inclusion of adaptation. [12] In the end, developing countries have emerged, as shown in the text of CoP20, which “refuses to include all parties in their commitments in adaptation planning or to include an adjustment element in their planned national contributions.” [13] The parties also agreed that the new legal instrument to be developed at COP21 would be “balanced” in terms of adaptation and mitigation.

[14] The Paris Agreement is the first international agreement to explicitly address the losses and damages that the parties to the UNFCCC have treated in the past as an integral part of the adaptation. [48] The function of adaptation, loss and damage in tandem, but two different concepts. [49] The World Resources Institute explains that losses and damage are due to reality, that there are certain effects of climate change that cannot be corrected – effects that are so severe that they leave lasting or significant effects. [50] Climate effects related to loss and damage include events that have slowed to acidify the oceans, desertification and sea level rise, as well as sudden extreme weather events, such as intense cyclones and floods.