Some denominations have no sacramental (or equivalent) dimension. The Salvation Army does not practice formal sacraments for a multitude of reasons, including the belief that it is better to focus on the reality behind the symbols; However, it does not prohibit its members from receiving sacraments in other denominations.  This first article examines the transformations of Western marriage and family law from the 16th-century Protestant Reformation and the 19th-century Enlightenment. Based on a Lutheran case study by Johann Apel, the article first traces the transformation of the medieval ideals of sacramental marriage and clerical celibacy to new Protestant models of the conjugal family as a social good, which includes both clergy and lay people, but which fall within the competence of the state. The article then traces, with a scholarly symposium between the Anglican moralist James Fitzjames Stephen and the liberal philosopher, the rise of a private contractual model and its influence on modern family law reform. This article was greatly expanded in the author`s later monograph, From Sacrament to Contract: Marriage, Religion, and Law in the Western Tradition (Westminster John Knox Press, 1997; 2d ed 2012 Holy Orders is the Sacrament by a deacon, a deacon is made a priest and a priest is a Bishop, dedicated to the Church). In the descending hierarchy, the three ranks are called episcopate, presbyterate and diaconate.  The bishop is the sole servant of this sacrament. Episcopal ordination gave him the fullness of the Last Supper, with membership in the Episcopal College, the successor body of the apostles, and entrusted him with the triple ministry of teaching, sanctifying and governing the People of God. Priestly ordination invites the priest to assume in the Eucharistic celebration the role of Christ, the head of the Church, an essential high priest, and entrusts him with the power and responsibility of celebrating the sacraments outside the sacred orders as an assistant to the Bishop.
Ordination as a deacon configures man in the service of the bishop, especially in the church`s exercise of Christian charity towards the poor and in the proclamation of the Word of God. The Quakers (Religious Society of Friends) also do not practice formal sacraments because they believe that all activities should be considered sacred. Instead, they focus on an inner transformation of all life. Some Quakers use the words “baptism” and “community” to describe the experience of The presence of Christ and his ministry.  Marriage became one of the sacraments at a time when the Church took control of marriage. Kenneth Stevenson famously spoke of the “taking” of marriage in the church at that time.